Belarusian Economic Research and Outreach Center

Policy Papers

Modern Tax System Transformations

Building an optimal tax system is a strategic objective for any state. Under the conditions of the economy openness, both internal and external factors can have a significant impact on the pace of economic development of a country that affects the level of tax collection. The article both emphasizes the importance of tax system improvement and explains the necessity of tax administration optimization. A tax system approximated to optimal one will be less affected by the negative trends and modern tax administration will reduce costs, increase transparency and the taxpayers’ trust level. The tax system analysis was carried out based on studying the Visegrad Group countries’ experience (the Czech Republic and Poland), as well as Georgia and Belarus. As a result, it was observed a single direction of all countries’ development in the area of the tax system improvement, while the presence of the individual characteristics.

 Aleksandr Vashchilko

Effects of Trade Wars on Belarus

The trade wars following the 2014 events in Ukraine affected not only the directly involved participants, but also countries like Belarus that were affected through international trade linkages. According to estimations based on a model outlined in Ossa (2014), these trade wars led to an increase in the trade flow through Belarus and thereby an increase of its tariff revenue. At the same time, because of a ban on imports in the sectors of meat and dairy products, the tariff revenue of Russia declined.

Public Expenditure Indices: Application to Belarus

Public Sector Performance Index (PSP) and Public Sector Efficiency Index (PSE) are the most accessible ways to estimate the comparative efficiency of public finance on the macroeconomic level. We construct PSP and PSE indices for Belarus and find that the efficiency of public expenditures in Belarus is high compared to other post-Soviet economies.

Unemployment insurance as a tool of social protection

This paper analyzes the international experience of functioning unemployment insurance systems and possibility of their application in Belarus.

Maternity Support Programs in Belarus

This paper analyzes the effects of child-care leave and maternity capital policies, and provides recommendations for Belarus.

Pension System of Belarus: Current State and Necessity for Reforms

This paper shows that the pension system of Belarus must be reformed and proposes the most effective reforms among all available alternatives.

Depressed Regions

This paper analyzes the concepts, causes and main characteristics of depressed regions and evaluates the level of depressed regions (districts) of Belarus using system of socio-economic indicators.

Economic Crisis in Finland

This paper analyzes the main stages, causes and consequences of the economic crisis in Finland in 1990-1993. Financial deregulation in the 1970s and 80s has created conditions for credit expansion, growth of asset prices, short-term capital inflow, and expansion of domestic credit and currency speculations. The economic crisis was marked by rising real interest rates, falling asset prices, overall financial instability that has led to a significant increase of the budget deficit and unemployment in Finland.

Features of economic and financial Swedish crisis in 90s of XX century

The paper analyses the Swedish experience to overcome the economic and financial crisis of the 90s. The article highlights the main preconditions and factors that contributed to the development of the crisis. Special attention is given to consideration of nature of the Swedish crisis. The problems of some industries together with compulsory destabilizing factors led to economic and financial crises. Erupted full-blown economic crisis of Sweden required an effective and complex system of anticrisis measures. As a result, the adopted program of economic activities, which included innovations in banking, currency and budgetary spheres, allowed quickly overcome the main negative tendencies in the economy.

Economic Crisis in Ireland in 2008-2013

This paper analyses the prerequisites, milestones and consequences of the economic crisis in Ireland in 2008-2013. Economic growth of the Celtic Tiger in 1987-2007 was accompanied by increasing wages and low credit rates, which ultimately led to the economic overheating. The debt crisis in Europe worsened Ireland’s situation and raised the scale of financial and economic crisis showed in a form of mortgage, fiscal and banking crisis as well as rising unemployment and immigration.

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